Shortleaf Pine (Pinus echinata Mill.)
  Common names: Yellow pine, Old
  Height: 75-100ft
  Diameter: 2-4 ft
  Showy flower: no
  Fall colors: no-evergreen
  Drought tolerant: no
  Annual rainfall: 20-80
  Frost Free Days: 90
  Minimum Tempurature (F): -33
  Growth Rate: rapid
  Longevity: 200-450 years
  State List: AL, AR, DE, FL, GA, IL,
  KY, LA, MD, MO, MS, NC, NJ, NY,
  OK, OH, PA, SC, TN, TX, VA, WV
An evergreen native conifer, Shortleaf pine has the widest distribution of any southeastern pine species.  It commonly attains 100 feet in height and 2 to 3 feet in diameter.  A straight single trunk supports a narrow, conical to pyramidal or flat topped crown.  It has a deep tap root and lateral roots about 24 inches beneath the surface and is wind firm.  Pinus echinata's   ...more
Slash Pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm.)
  2 variations: elliottii, and densa
  Height: 50-100 ft
  Diameter: 2-3 ft
  Showy flower: no
  Fall colors: no-evergreen
  Drought tolerant: low
  Annual rainfall: 40-80 inches
  Soil Needs: moist, pH 4.0-6.4,
  Frost Free Days: 250
  Minimum Tempurature (F): -18
  Growth Rate: rapid
  Shade: Intolerant
  State List: AL, FL, GA, LA, MS, NC,
  SC, TX                                   ...more                   
Spruce Pine (Pinus glabra Walter.)
  Common name: Walter Pine, Cedar
  Height: 80-100 ft
  Diameter: 2-2.5 ft
  Showy flower: no
  Fall colors: no-evergreen
  Drought tolerant: low
  Annual rainfall: 35-66
  Soil Needs: pH 3.8-5.6
  Frost Free Days: 240
  Minimum Tempurature (F): -2
  Growth Rate: rapid
  Shade: Tolerant
  State List: AL, FL, GA, LA, MS, SC
Photo Gallery
Pine Pages 1, 2, 3, 4
Distibution maps courtesy USDA PLANTS Database
Red Pine (Pinus resinosa Aiton)
  Syn: Pinus resinosa Soland.
  Common names: Norway Pine..        
  Height: 50-100 feet
  Diameter: 2-3 feet
  Showy flower: no
  Fall colors: no-evergreen
  Drought tolerant: low
  Annual rainfall: 20-40
  Soil Needs: sandy, pH 5.1-5.5
  Frost Free Days: 80
  Minimum Temperature (F): -43
  Growth Rate: rapid
  ENDANGERED in Connecticut,
  Illinois, and New Jersey         ...more                                             
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Sand Pine (Pinus clausa Chapm ex Engelm.) Vasey ex Sarg.
  Common names: Scrub pine, Spruce
  Height: 80 ft
  Diameter: 18-20 inches
  Showy flower: no
  Fall colors: no-evergreen
  Drought tolerant: low
  Annual rainfall: 40-65
  Soil Needs: moist, sandy, pH 4.2-5.5
  Frost Free Days: 265
  Minimum Temperature (F): 2
  Growth Rate: slow
  Longevity: less than years
  State List: AL, FL, GA, MS, NC          
Sand pine has 2 geographic specific variations, the difference being cone behavior.  In the Florida peninsula, sand pines are var. clausa, known commonly as Ocala Sand pine.  They have mostly serotinous cones, meaning they only open when heat activated.  The other variety, var. immuginata occurs in the Florida panhandle and southern Georgia, and is known as             ...more
Red Pine is native to Connecticut, Illinois, Indiana, Maine,  Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Virginia, Vermont, Wisconsin, and West Virginia in the United States.  In Canada, it is native to Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, and Quebec.
A native conifer, Pinus resinosa, averages between 75 and 80 feet but may grow to 200 feet in optimal sites.  The largest trunk d.b.h (diameter at breast height) on record is 59.6 inches but the trunk base typically only reaches widths of 2 to 3 feet.  Red pines have a single stem, or trunk, that supports a symmetrical, dense, and oval crown that is supported by
Pinus clausa is native to Alabama, Frorida, Georgia, Mississippi, and North Carolina
Pinus echinata native distribution is the majority of the eastern United States
Pinus glabra is natve to the southeastern United States
Pinus glabra cones are close to the branches and nestled within dark green needles
An uncommon tree, it is usually found singly in mixed forests.  This native evergreen conifer gets its name because of the way it produces smaller branches between the major branch whorls, similar to a spruce.  A medium sized tree, Spruce pines usually grown 80 to o100 feet tall and reach 2 to 2.3 feet in diameter.  The trunk is straight with horizontal, somwhat drooping  ...more
Slash pine is a native evergreen conifer found across much of the southern United States. Pinus elliottii, the regular slash pine, is the most abundant and widely spread, whereas Florida Slash Pine, var. densa, is native only to central and southern Florida.  The two varieties can hybridize were their ranges overlap. There are several
distinguishing      ...more                                                                              
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Photo Gallery
Mature bark of Pinus clausa
New growth on Pinus clausa is lighter green
Yellowish brown Pinus clausa cones nestled in vivid green needles
Photo Gallery
Pinus echinata cones are pyramidal to conical
Pinus echinata bark is rough and  flaky,  furrowed into vertical plates
Pinus echinata seeds have a single wing and are light brown
Photo Gallery
Pinus elliottii var. densa has a 2 to 6 year grass stage
The rough scaly bark of Pinus elliottii var. densa
Pinus elliottii has unique growth buds as they have whitish scales
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Pine (Pinus) Genus
For an A-Z list (by scientific name) of native pine trees click here.
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Home>Families>Pinaceae>North American Native Pine Trees, Pinus
Pine trees are one of the most varied and widely spread
genus of native tree species in North America.  From the
cold mountains of Alaska to Nova Scotia in the east, from high
wind-swept Rocky Mountain cliffs to the fertile Appalachian
forests, on seaside borders, swamps, dry foothills, lowlands
and everywhere in between, pine trees can be found.  Adapted
to so many environments, pine trees are hardy survivors in
their native habitat.  The pine trees of North America were
used by Native Americans for treatments of respiratory ailments, in canoe building and even as food.  Today native pines are one of the most valuable commercial timber sources and continue to be used for construction, furniture, pulpwood, land management and more.
North American Pine Family
Pine Family A to Z
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